The outside of your teeth is covered with enamel, a hard material that gives your tooth structure and allows it to support the strong forces that are exerted when you chew. This enamel structure is dynamic, which means that it changes during the regular course of life.
During your lifetime, you will naturally lose some of the minerals that form the hard enamel structure of the tooth. This loss is called tooth demineralization. The specific minerals that are lost are calcium and phosphate. Teeth are demineralized more quickly when the acidity or pH of your saliva increases due to things like bacteria, acidic foods, and carbonated sodas. The effect of demineralization is a weakening of the tooth structure caused by the loss of the mineral building blocks. Teeth can be demineralized generally, or in one specific area, which is called a cavity.
Some chemicals, like amorphous calcium phosphate (“ACP”), can help combat demineralization by contributing to tooth strengthening through remineralization. Put simply, tooth remineralization is the reintroduction of minerals to the vacant areas in tooth enamel. Research has shown that ACP is a chemical that is great for remineralization, because it has a special chemical shape that makes it uniquely able to fit into and fill existing defects in tooth surface enamel.